INTRODUCTION TO POULTRY
Rearing a variety of birds such as chicks, turkeys and ducks is referred to as poultry. Chicken forms the major poultry farming all over the world. India occupies 6th position in the poultry farming in the world. According to an estimate, 100 crores worth of eggs and chicken are produced every year from India and 15 lakh people are dependent on this industry.
The extraordinary progress of poultry farming in India is due to the following reasons.
1. Poultry requires less investment.
2. It generates income in a short span of time.
3. It provides work round the year.
4. It can be started as a cottage industry.
5. It produces good quality of animal proteins. (Nutrient value of egg is 13.3% of proteins; 13.3% of fats; 173 K. cal. of energy; 60 mg. of calcium; 220 mg. of phosphorus and some vitamins, iron efë. About 100 gms. of flesh of chicken consists of 26.0% proteins; 0.6% fats; 109 K. cal. of energy; 25mg. calcium and 245 mg. phosphorus).
6. It can be started as a self employment scheme.
7. Government is giving loans to encourage poultry.
8. The feed can be better utilised by poultry. As a result, less food consumption and better growth of poultry are realised.
9.Poultry is also suitable for mixed farm conditions.
10.Marketing facilities for the sale of poultry products are available.
11. Education and training programmers are taken up by the Government to encourage youth to involve in poultry farming.
Andhra Pradesh occupies the first position in Poultry farming in India. The poultry forms in A.P. are about one lakh. Punjab and Maharashtra occupy the second and third places in poultry products.
The domestic fowl is allowed to move freely in open places in villages. These birds freely move and lay a few number of eggs. This is the only system normally practiced for growing chicks in villages for a longtime. However, this method is not proved to be economical. As an alternative to this, poultry farming is initiated.
POULTRY FARMING METHODS
Some important aspects are to be followed in poultry farming. They are i. poultry housing and equipment ii. management of chicks - broilers and layers iii. poultry diseases iv. poultry products, marketing and economics. In poultry farming, the birds may be grown either by the semi intensive system or intensive system.
SEMI – INTENSIVE POULTRY FARMING SYSTEM
This system is adopted where the free space available is limited. A space of 20-30 square yards is to be allowed per each bird of outside run. Some times the birds may be allowed to move onto fresh ground.
POULTRY FARMING-INTENSIVE SYSTEM
In this method, proper care is to be taken to grow the chicken. The intensive system is the common system employed in poultry farms. In this system, birds are grown freely in houses or cages arranged in tiers. Housing is meant for providing ideal conditions for the chicken so as to give efficient production.
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