Male Reproductive System:



1. Sexual dimorphism is well marked due to presence of penis and scrotal sacs containing tests only in male.

1. Not distinct. However, in male frog, base of first inner finger forms a thick nuptial pad during breeding season to clasp female in amplexus. Vocal sacs present in males.

2. Include 2 testes,2 epididymes, 2vasa deferentia, urethra, penis and some accessory glands.

2. Include two testes, several vasa efferentia, bidders canal two urinogenital ductsand cloaca.

3. Small, oval, white bodies. Remain inside abdominal cavity in young. But descend from abdomen in to scrotal sacs during breeding season in adult.

3. Ovoid or rod-like, light yellow, attached to anteroventral surface of kidneys by mesorchium.

4. Rectal gland present..

4. Rectal gland absent.

5. Each testes attached by anterior end to dorsal abdominal wall by a sperma-tic cord and by posterior end to wall of scrotal sac by gubernaculum.

5. Absent


6. Epididymis well developed and has 3 distinct parts, caput, cauda and corpus epididymes attached to the anterior, posterior and inner sides, respectively, of testis.

6. Vas deferens does not form an epididymis.

7. Two vasa deferentia, arising from cauda epididymis of their side, open into neck of urinary bladder or urethra.

7. Each vas dererens unites with ureter of its side forming a urinogenital duct, opening separately into roof of cloaca.

8. Small, slightly bifurcated blind sac, called uterus masculinus or seminal vesicle opens dorsally and independently into urethra.

8. In some species of frog, terminal part of urinogenital duct enlarges forming a temporary seminal vesicle.

9. It includes small erectile cylindrical penis in front of anus of male. It serves to transmit sperms into vagina of female during copulaiton.

9. Copulatory apparatus absent. Fertilization external, inwater, where ova and spermatozoa are shed during amplexus.

10. Male has one pair of prostate, Cowper's, perenial and rectal glands. Their secretions either attract .   the female or contribute to semen.

10.Do not occur.




11 .Include paired ovaries, oviducts, uteri and singlevestibule, vagina, clitoris and some accessory glands. 11. Include a pair of ovaries, a pair of oviducts and a cloaca.
12.Two ovaries are small, oval,white bodies attached symmetrically and dorsally behind kidneys by mesovarium. 12. Ovaries are a pair of large irregular multilobed, oval,blackish bodies attached near kidneys to dorsal abdominal wall by mesovarium.
13.Two oviducts are large, coiled tubes meeting behindinto vagina, andcalled fallopian tubes. Anterior end of each opens near ovary by a smalloviducal funnel with fimbriated ostium. 13. Oviducts are very long and much coiled glandulartubes opening behind into cloaca. Their anterior ends form separate oviducal funnels with separate openings or ostia, at the bases of lungs.
14.No shell glands present in oviducts. 14. Shell glands are absent.
16. Fallopian tubes are followed by much wider, longer convoluted, vascular anc muscular uteri where embryos develoj 15. Before entering cloaca, each ovidud expands into a thin-walled ovisac, >.    erroneously called uteruswhich is absent.
16. Both uteri meet into a common long, wide and median vagina. It opens with urethra into common urino - genital sinus or vestibule. 16. Vagina absent. So called uteri or ovisacs open directly into cloaca. Vestibule absent.
17. Vestibule opens to outside ventral to anus, through a longitudinal slit like aperture called VULVA. 17. No vulva present. Cloaca opens directly to exterior through a small circular cloacal aperture.
18. Special female sex glands include Cowper's, perineal and rectal glands. 18. No glands.
19.Mammaryglands secrete milk and open on 4 to 5 pairs of ventral teats or nipples in female rabbit. - 19. Absent.

Frog-female urogenital organs

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